= I'm a Ph.D. Graduate in Graphene Technology from The University of Cambridge, what are your questions about graphene and 2d materials? =

The biggest right now is Concrete! Cement production is the cause of around 7% of the world's green house gas emissions (from a 2015 report). If we incorporate graphene, it increases mechanical properties (therefore you need less of it) and decreases water damage by 4 times making buildings more durable! Manchester and Talga resources is leading this endeavour

Yes! It is very application focused but the largest efforts are directed towards liquid phase exfoliated graphene. Essentially, you can put soap, water and graphite in a blender and produce graphene! This is great for plastics, construction materials and paints

For semiconductor materials it's a more costly process but creating single-grain graphene has been achieved on the large scale (see Stephen Hofmann's work). The issue is transporting it from the catalyst it grows on to something useful in microelectronics such as silicon

This is a great question! Currently graphene is very application based and there are many forms. There are great efforts to standardize graphene through The Graphene Council and other standardization agencies. For example, the EU initiative The Graphene Flagship define graphene as between 1 and 10 layers of graphite because of the distinctive characteristics as you add each layer. We've only really explored 1-2 layers indepth

Additionally, you're right! The size is important as is crystallinity, Graphene Nanoribbons are one such case where the application determines if it's graphene

There's some drama in the world of 2D materials around 'epitaxially grown graphene', some leaders believe epitaxial (e.g. vertical) growth of graphene is impossible because the moment you have more than one layer then it isn't graphene!
Both! There are quite a few other techniques too including:
Page 79 of this roadmap has the 9 key methods. httpswww.researchgate.net/publication/265971822_Science_and_Technology_Roadmap_for_Graphene_Related_Two-Dimensional_Crystals_and_Hybrid_Systems
Generally mechanical exfoliation of graphene is used for proof-of-concept. CVD for semiconductor applications and exfoliated 2D materials in liquids are for composites!
Graphene and CNT’s are already being used for the innovation of batteries. There was one institution that would “print” the cnt’s on paper, add it to an electrolyte solution and made some progress. So many different properties I’m interested in. Like how they operate under different magnetic fields, pressures, different configurations etc

The flexible properties of graphene allow for architectures that aren't conventional to battery scientists, there's a real abstract problem there, we're not use to nanomaterials yet!
Lithium batteries already have an anode that is graphite, the issue is dendritic formation during charging and discharging (which is why your battery holds less power after a while, if the lithium can't intercalate between the graphite sheets then you get less power)

If we can optimize the graphite sheets through graphene research to prevent dendritic formation then we're on a great track. Lithium also has it's part to play, LiCoO2 is currently used, there are a whole host of lithium compounds being investigated, but we've only touched the tip. It's very expensive and very trial and error right now. FYI, keeping your phone charged prevents this! The myth around keeping it charged will deteriorate the battery revolves around Nickel Cadmium batteries not Lithium ion!
In terms of their own sort of battery, supercapacitors are rolled up batteries that have graphene/graphite as both the anode and cathode. These have a higher charge and can charge within minutes! The issue is they also discharge within minutes

The energy density of supercapacitors and the lightweight of graphene goes great with cars, replace your heavy car battery with a supercapacitor and suddenly you're getting huge power output and greater speeds which enhances the fuel economy

What are your thoughts on graphene production. I have been thinking that the method for mass production of high quality graphene would be to use contact free annealing on copper to create a single crystal and use that as a substrate for graphene which would be produced in a vertical cvd chamber that is roll to roll. If u think I’m anI want to know y, I’m in high school and have had an interest for a 5 years now and from the research I’ve gathered in that time this seems to be the most promising Edit- if I’m explaining this poorly look at sunghwan jin’s work, his model but roll to roll for both the copper annealing and graphene production while also this happening vertically at an angle is my ideal vision
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