= David Hockney; Biography and Photography =
== Who Was David Hockney? ==
**David Hockney **is considered among the most influential British artists of the 20th century. In their 2011 poll, The Other Art Fair Poll confirmed this when more than 1000 artists voted for the leading artists of this age. His work has included paintings, photography, collage, and digital pieces. As the century progressed, Hockney incorporated more technology into his artistic process and works. Most recently, Hockney uses an Apple iPad as a medium to create his works. He earned his degree at the Royal College of Art in London. A few of his earlier works used the setting of California swimming pools, where Hockney was inspired by the light of the region. He continues to be known for his collage style of art termed "joiners," or a collection of photo collages and photomontages

 The Early Life of David Hockney 
A biography of David Hockney must start with his birth on July 9, 1937, in Bradford, England. He was the fourth child born to Kenneth and Laura Hockney. His father was a middle-class working man and was an Objector during WWII. It meant that he would not fight in or support the war, which is a belief that David Hockney has also held throughout his lifetime. He was encouraged in his love of art, books, films, and his artistic pursuits during his childhood. He was influenced by post-impressionists like Picasso and literary greats like Walt Whitman from an early age

 David Hockney's Education and Personal Life 
Hockney attended the Bradford College till 1957. He then spent two years working in hospitals to fulfill a national service requirement due to his objection to war. In 1959, he entered graduate studies at the
** Royal College of Art **in London. During this time, he was influenced by abstract expressionism and renowned American artist R.B Kitaj. Kitaj was making contributions to the Pop Art movement, which arose as a rebellion against traditional views on what art should be

Hockney nearly missed graduating. He refused to write a final essay to complete the requirements citing that he should not have to explain his work with words and be evaluated on his final work. He convinced the college, and the rules were changed

 The Early Career of David Hockney 
David Hockney's earliest work included paintings that took inspiration from or incorporated directly literary quotes. An example of his early work is
*We Two Boys Clinging Together*, which was completed in 1961

Hockney was exposed to the light of California and Hollywood through films. He visited in 1963 and moved there in 1966. He was drawn to area swimming pools incorporating them into works like
*A Bigger Splash* of 1967. Beginning with David Hockney's pool paintings, his work began to turn toward realism. His primary subjects at this time were pools and the insides and outsides of California homes

In 1970, Hockney assembled his first work, coined a
**joiner A joiner was a collage that was laid out in a complex and grid-like pattern of Polaroid pictures. This work happened by accident. Hockney has been working on a painting and took pictures to paint at a later time. Once completed, he realized a new medium he enjoyed. David Hockney was a competent photographer, and his photography skills became crucial to completing his collage works

 David Hockney's Later Career 
By the mid-70s, David Hockney was not using painting as a medium. He began to work with photography and lithography. Lithography is a printing process that resembles painting more than etches. During this time, David Hockney's work overlapped with set and costume design for various productions. He gained international attention and recognition for his work in set and costume designs

In the mid-80s, David Hockney's style developed as he added the medium of painting back into his repertoire. Using the influences of cubism, he created "A Visit with Christopher and Don" in 1984. He also worked with collage and photomontage often. The difference between collage and photomontage is that photomontage is a multi-image picture created by photos, and a collage is a layout that does not have to be logical

In the 1990s, Hockney once again honed his painting style by painting many abstract landscapes and portraits. He created "A Bigger Grandin 1998. He has stated that he wanted to "photograph the unphotographable."
The turn of the 21st century brought many multi-paneled works from Hockney, often depicting landscapes. David Hockney's "Winter Timber "is one of his largest works spread across 15 canvases. He completed this work in 2009

As the 21st century has progressed, Hockney has worked with various technologies and most extensively with the Apple iPad to create works of his home and surrounding landscapes. He has completed a series showing the seasons around areas of his home

 Current Life 
David Hockney is currently 84 years old and is living with his partner in a cottage in Normandy, France, that they bought together in 2018. He has remained at home during much of the Covid-19 pandemic. However, he has been active and working. He has organized shows, stayed connected with friends, and continued to work on art pieces

He works in a converted cider-press building on his property with an assistant and a high-tech printer. He had been using the Apple iPad for much of his artwork and had done many landscapes of the area and also a series on the seasonal changes in the land. This work, done during the pandemic, was shown in 2021 at an exhibition" A Year in Normandy" at the Musee de l'Orangerie, Paris. In February 2022, he shared a collection of portrait paintings he had done of people visiting him with a New York Times reporter

== Background ==
Did you know that David Hockney was chosen as the most influential artist of all time in Britain's 2011 The Other Art Fair Poll?
**David Hockney** is a contemporary English photographer and painter best known for his depictions of swimming pools in Los Angeles, California. Hockney is well known for his collage-style photographs and his realist painting style. Additionally, his work was very important to the pop art movement. In this lesson, we will examine David Hockey's life and talk about his painting and photography styles

== David Hockney's Photography and Photomontages ==
In the 1980s, David Hockney began taking pictures with a Polaroid camera when he recognized that collage and photomontage could be an art form in themselves. His first subject for this discovered form was his mother. He took the shots over time and arranged them to give the work a feeling of a piece resembling cubism. He termed these works joiners. Some were laid out in a grid pattern, and others were more random. He made both landscapes and portraits using this technique that he developed accidentally. Hockney used both Polaroid and 35mm film in his photography

After many works using this technique, he returned to painting primarily. He found photography more limiting and confining. He was of the opinion that painting was more free and organic

 Examples of Photography and Photomontages 
David Hockney's photomontage and collage works include landscapes, portraits, and scenes. Examples of David Hockney's photography, photomontage, and collage (joiners):
*Kasmin*(1982) *Don &Christopher* (1982) *Nicolas Wilder Studying Picasso* (1982) *Still Life Blue Guitar* (1982) *Sun On The Pool *(1982) *Pearl Blossom Highway* (1986)
== David Hockney's Style of Painting ==
David Hockney's style fits into the Pop Art genre. Pop Art was a movement populated by many young artists of the 1960s and 1970s. They wanted to bring vibrant color, life, and excitement to the art world. David Hockney's style of painting, whether it be with canvas and paints or on an iPad, is filled with bold and bright colors and landscapes. He also typically paints in a bright, warm light reminiscent of what he experienced in settings of southern California

He paints a range of themes and subjects like landscapes, portraits, and architecture. During the 1960s, he was fascinated by the light and composition of local California swimming pools. During the time of the late 1960s, he often made the interior and exterior of homes his background

He is known for incorporating cutting-edge technology into his work and has done so by using an
**Apple iPad** to create many more recent works digitally

 David Hockney's Pool Paintings 
When David Hockney moved to California in 1966, he was drawn to the warm light of the area. He realized that California had not been a subject and background of many artists and he became drawn to a common staple in the homes of many residents, the
** swimming pool David Hockney's pool paintings represent how he saw California. He saw it as a warm and fun place full of life. He was able to represent a contrast he saw in post-war Britain versus the intense warmth and light of his new surroundings in California

Some of Hockney's Pool Paintings include:
Domestic Scene Los Angeles(1963) Peter Getting Out Of Nick's Pool(1966) A Bigger Splash(1967)
 Other Paintings 
Some of David Hockney's early paintings appear more abstract, and the colors are duller than those of later works. As his work develops, it takes on the characteristic vibrancy of the Pop Art genre

Other notable Hockney Paintings:
We Two Boys Together Clinging(1961) American Collectors(Fred and Marcia Weisman) (1968) A Visit with Christopher and Don, Santa Monica(1984) A Bigger Grand Canyon(1998)
== David Hockney's Work and Significance ==
David Hockney's work has had a far-reaching impact on art and culture. In 2011, he was named the most influential artist of all time by The Other Art Fair Poll. He is a forerunner of the Photorealist movement, a genre where the artist looks at a photograph and tries to reproduce its elements in their art. He has inspired artists like Chuck Close, Cecily Brown, and Martin Scorsese. He has reinvented himself as he develops and employs the use of new
**technology **to keep his work fresh and cutting edge. Hockney lectured at many universities prior to the pandemic, and he has collaborated on books and exhibitions. In addition to his artwork, he is well known for his set and costume design. His artwork is noted as memorable by many critics and admirers

== Lesson Summary ==
The 2011 Other Art Fair Poll voted
**David Hockney** as the most influential artist of all time. Born in 1937 in Bradford, England, he studied at the **Royal College of Art** in London. He moved to California in 1966 and took inspiration from the light, thereby creating his iconic paintings of **swimming pools He was inspired by the pools in the local homes he visited in Southern California and has become famous for works such as *A Bigger Splash*

As Hockney developed his techniques, he began to explore the uses of
**technology He began using a Polaroid camera to take images to paint in the future. As he arranged these individual picture pieces in a grid pattern, he liked the result and created ** joiners a type of photo collage. He continued to explore this throughout the 1980s till he returned to painting. Another technology he employs for a medium is the use of digital art on an ** Apple iPad At 84 years old, Hockney continues to work at his home in Normandy, France

== Biography ==
 Early Life 
David Hockney was born in England on July 9, 1932, to Kenneth and Laura Hockney. He grew up with four other siblings and received a solid education. During his studies at the Bradford College of Art, he studied under Frank Lisle, a renowned British painter. Additionally, Hockney attended the Royal College of Art in London where he began developing his artistic style

During the Young Contemporaries Exhibition, Hockney showed his work alongside Peter Blake, an artist who is credited for the beginning of British pop art. Despite Hockney's original expressionistic style, he was grouped with the British pop art artists, and ultimately, his work would fit into the movement

Hockney encountered problems when he tried to graduate from the Royal College of Art. The college refused to give him a diploma because Hockney would not complete the exit essay required of students. Eventually, the college updated its rules to allow Hockney to graduate, mostly due to his rising status and his public sketch known as
*The Diploma* that garnered attention unwanted by the school
 Career 
During the 1960s and 1970s, David Hockney moved back and forth between Los Angeles and England. Hockney's first visit to California was in 1963, and in 1966, he made a home for himself in the greater Los Angeles area. Hockney became obsessed with swimming pools in Los Angeles and painted many series that highlighted the Southern California culture. Gradually, his work morphed from expressionist to realist. Hockney also began painting portraits. However, he abandoned painting for quite some time, due to his love of photography

Around 1970, Hockney produced his first 'joiner,' a photography collage using Polaroid photographs. Hockney would join Polaroid photographs together in a grid. These pieces would become the cornerstone of his career

During the 1980s, Hockney began painting again, but he didn't abandon photography. Many of his paintings during this time were of the ocean, flowers, and portraits. Many of his portraits were of friends, family, and his parents

As technology became more prevalent in society, Hockney incorporated it into his work. For example, Hockney uses paint application on iPads to create artwork. At the Royal Museum of Ontario, Hockey presented 100 paintings that were created in a digital medium

== Paintings ==
David Hockney has painted seascapes, portraits, and many other landscapes in his career. His most famous work is his series of Los Angeles swimming pool paintings. One of his best known swimming pool paintings is called
*A Bigger Splash*. The painting was completed in 1967 and is categorized as a pop art piece

The painting features a modern home in the background and a swimming pool in the foreground. The swimming pool has a diving board, and Hockney has painted a large splash, which tells us that somebody has just jumped into the water

It was made with acrylic and painted on acotton duck canvas. The beauty of the painting is that Hockney used only seven colors to complete the giant painting (the canvas is 96 inches and 95.5 inches)

Some of Hockney's other famous paintings are
*We Two Boys Together Clinging* and *Mr and Mrs Clark and Percy*. *We Two Boys Together Clinging* was painted in 1961 and uses lines from Walt Whitman's poetry. It depicts two boys holding each other, and *Mr and Mrs Clark and Percy* was painted in the early 1970s and is a portrait of Ossie Clark and Celia Birtwell, two of Hockney's close friends

== Photography ==
The photo collages known as joiners were created using Polaroids and 35mm photographs. Hockey made large collages of landscapes and people using this style. Some of his most popular joiners include
*Pearblossom Highway #2*, *My Mother, Bolton Abbey*, and *Kasmin 1982*

He became fascinated with the narrative that he could create through photographic collage and spent much of his career creating joiners before returning to painting in late his career

== Lesson Summary ==
**David Hockney** is one of the most influential twentieth-century painters and photographers. Hockney is a British artist who relocated to California after being inspired by the Southern California culture. His paintings focus on swimming pools, the ocean, flowers, and portraits. During the 1960s, he painted pop art series of Los Angeles swimming pools. During the middle of his career, he developed as a keen photographer and created collage-like pieces using Polaroid photographs. These pieces were called joiners, and they helped him solidify a place in art history. Later in his career, Hockney returned to painting. Some of his best pieces include *A Bigger Splash* and *We Two Boys Together Clinging*

== Background ==
Did you know that David Hockney was chosen as the most influential artist of all time in Britain's 2011 The Other Art Fair Poll?
**David Hockney** is a contemporary English photographer and painter best known for his depictions of swimming pools in Los Angeles, California. Hockney is well known for his collage-style photographs and his realist painting style. Additionally, his work was very important to the pop art movement. In this lesson, we will examine David Hockey's life and talk about his painting and photography styles

== Biography ==
 Early Life 
David Hockney was born in England on July 9, 1932, to Kenneth and Laura Hockney. He grew up with four other siblings and received a solid education. During his studies at the Bradford College of Art, he studied under Frank Lisle, a renowned British painter. Additionally, Hockney attended the Royal College of Art in London where he began developing his artistic style

During the Young Contemporaries Exhibition, Hockney showed his work alongside Peter Blake, an artist who is credited for the beginning of British pop art. Despite Hockney's original expressionistic style, he was grouped with the British pop art artists, and ultimately, his work would fit into the movement

Hockney encountered problems when he tried to graduate from the Royal College of Art. The college refused to give him a diploma because Hockney would not complete the exit essay required of students. Eventually, the college updated its rules to allow Hockney to graduate, mostly due to his rising status and his public sketch known as
*The Diploma* that garnered attention unwanted by the school
 Career 
During the 1960s and 1970s, David Hockney moved back and forth between Los Angeles and England. Hockney's first visit to California was in 1963, and in 1966, he made a home for himself in the greater Los Angeles area. Hockney became obsessed with swimming pools in Los Angeles and painted many series that highlighted the Southern California culture. Gradually, his work morphed from expressionist to realist. Hockney also began painting portraits. However, he abandoned painting for quite some time, due to his love of photography

Around 1970, Hockney produced his first 'joiner,' a photography collage using Polaroid photographs. Hockney would join Polaroid photographs together in a grid. These pieces would become the cornerstone of his career

During the 1980s, Hockney began painting again, but he didn't abandon photography. Many of his paintings during this time were of the ocean, flowers, and portraits. Many of his portraits were of friends, family, and his parents

As technology became more prevalent in society, Hockney incorporated it into his work. For example, Hockney uses paint application on iPads to create artwork. At the Royal Museum of Ontario, Hockey presented 100 paintings that were created in a digital medium

== Paintings ==
David Hockney has painted seascapes, portraits, and many other landscapes in his career. His most famous work is his series of Los Angeles swimming pool paintings. One of his best known swimming pool paintings is called
*A Bigger Splash*. The painting was completed in 1967 and is categorized as a pop art piece

The painting features a modern home in the background and a swimming pool in the foreground. The swimming pool has a diving board, and Hockney has painted a large splash, which tells us that somebody has just jumped into the water

It was made with acrylic and painted on acotton duck canvas. The beauty of the painting is that Hockney used only seven colors to complete the giant painting (the canvas is 96 inches and 95.5 inches)

Some of Hockney's other famous paintings are
*We Two Boys Together Clinging* and *Mr and Mrs Clark and Percy*. *We Two Boys Together Clinging* was painted in 1961 and uses lines from Walt Whitman's poetry. It depicts two boys holding each other, and *Mr and Mrs Clark and Percy* was painted in the early 1970s and is a portrait of Ossie Clark and Celia Birtwell, two of Hockney's close friends

== Photography ==
The photo collages known as joiners were created using Polaroids and 35mm photographs. Hockey made large collages of landscapes and people using this style. Some of his most popular joiners include
*Pearblossom Highway #2*, *My Mother, Bolton Abbey*, and *Kasmin 1982*

He became fascinated with the narrative that he could create through photographic collage and spent much of his career creating joiners before returning to painting in late his career

== Lesson Summary ==
**David Hockney** is one of the most influential twentieth-century painters and photographers. Hockney is a British artist who relocated to California after being inspired by the Southern California culture. His paintings focus on swimming pools, the ocean, flowers, and portraits. During the 1960s, he painted pop art series of Los Angeles swimming pools. During the middle of his career, he developed as a keen photographer and created collage-like pieces using Polaroid photographs. These pieces were called joiners, and they helped him solidify a place in art history. Later in his career, Hockney returned to painting. Some of his best pieces include *A Bigger Splash* and *We Two Boys Together Clinging*

 Who is David Hockney and what is he known for? 
David Hockney is a British-born artist. He is known for his pool paintings, joiners (a term he uses for his photo collages), and use of technology like Polaroids and iPads as he continues to experiment and develop his art

 What did David Hockney do as a child? 
As a young child, David Hockney was encouraged to enjoy books, art, and films as a young child. He first saw California and its light through the films he saw. He was attracted to artists like Picasso at a young age

 What is David Hockney's most famous piece? 
One of David Hockney's most famous pieces is "A Bigger Splash," painted in 1967 during his swimming pool series. It was created shortly after Hockney had moved to California and depicted the splash after someone had jumped in the pool off the yellow diving board

 What is the term used to define David Hockney's photographic collages? 
David Hockney was taking Polaroids one day in the hopes of painting the content at a later time. When he arranged them in a grid-like pattern, he liked the composition and harmony of the result and realized it was an art piece in itself. He then called these works joiners. He created several of these photo collages and photomontages

 What type of photography did David Hockney do? 
David Hockney is a competent photographer. He initially used Polaroids in his joiners and his work for that. He also would use 35mm film

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